You can use a text widget to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. [6], Advocates view chants as a required practice for spiritual growth. It is believed that Rumi heard the dhikr, لا إله إلا الله "la ilaha ilallah" or in English, "There is no god but Allah" in the apprentices beating of the gold and so entranced in happiness he stretched out both of his arms and started spinning in a circle (sufi whirling). Semah is an Alevi ritual dance. The sema is a dance performed by the “Whirling Dervishes”. P. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. With that the practice of Sama and the dervishes of the Mevlevi order were born. Lewisohn, Leonard. For other uses, see. It is also performed as a folk and concert dance. [6] This way, a higher degree of spiritual contemplation can be reached. Various forms of Semah exist in Alevi-Bektaşi communities across Turkey, each with distinct musical characteristics and rhythmic structures. Semah, Alevi-Bektaşi Ritual (UNESCO) Re-Imagining Identity: The Transformation of the Alevi Semah by Ayhan Erol. D'un point de vue mystique, le semah alevi bektachi reflète le fait que tout est en mouvement dans l'Univers [10]. One consistent characteristic is the performance of the ritual by both men and women, side by side. Semahs are performed by semahçıs (Semah dancers), accompanied by devout musicians playing the saz long-necked lute. Turning towards the truth, the follower grows through love, deserts his ego, finds the truth and arrives at perfection. At this point, wajd can be reached. Studia Islamica 74 (1991): 43-62.JSTOR. In 2008, UNESCO confirmed the "Mevlevi Sama Ceremony" of Turkey as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Also, people must maintain proper intent and actions must be present throughout the sama'; otherwise, they cannot experience the ceremony's intended positive effects. Encyclopedia Iranica. This practice is said to reveal what is already in one's heart, rather than creating emotions. Le semah alevi bektachi reflète le fait que tout est en mouvement dans l'Univers. [7] Poetry is often included in the ceremony as well, because while it is inadequate by itself, it works together with aid in spiritual contemplation. Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, UNESCO Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sama_(Sufism)&oldid=973088541, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 08:43. Semah; Alevi ve Bektaşi topluluklarının temel ibadeti olan Cem ayininde müzik eşliğinde uygulanan tören nitelikli dini ayindir. It can be described as a set of mystical and aesthetic movements in rhythmic harmony performed by semah performers (semah dancers), accompanied by zakirs (musical performers in cem rituals) playing the baglama. There are two forms of Semah: İçeri Semahs are performed in Cems only among adherents as part of the twelve services; Dışarı Semahs are performed independent of services to promote Semah culture to younger generations. [5] However, only instruments which are symbolic and not considered profane are used. Langlois, Tony. The sema is a dance that focuses on showing the spiritual journey of a person. Sama is a means of meditating on God through focusing on melodies and dancing. Any poetry, even the erotic, can be applied to God, and thus used for this ceremony. Below is a picture of the Sema dance: the “whirling dervishes”. It is a particularly popular form of worship in Sufism. They are performed by both male and female teenagers, often in mixed groups, and participants turn facing each other in pairs or small groups and do not necessarily whirl as individuals. 2) Advocates, who are of the majority Shias. (355). "The Sacred Meditation of Islam: Sama' in the Persian Sufi Tradition." [11], Opponents find music as an Innovation bidah and associated with infidelity. [6] It often includes the singing of hymns, called qawl and bayt. Meditation and Sufi practices are allowed in Islam as long as they are within the limits of the Shari'ah (Islamic law). The story of the creation of this unique form of dhikr is that Rumi was walking through the town marketplace one day when he heard the rhythmic hammering of the goldbeaters. [8] The immediate goal of sama' is to reach wajd, which is a trance-like state of ecstasy. Brill Online, 2010. The semah showcases unity and harmony of the Shia Alevis and are performed to show the intensity of dance and emotion. [3] It may have been in use since the 10th century to refer to a type of dhikr (remembrance of God), a spiritual concert, a ceremony used by various Sufi orders, particularly the Chishti order of the sub-continent. The Alchemy of Happiness. It is a journey where “the seeker’s turning toward God and truth, a maturing through love, the transformation of self as a way of union with God, and the return to life as the servant of all creation” (Sansal 1996). Similarly, Abu Sa`id, (357 A.H.) (967 C.E.) In Egypt, the Mevlevi form of Sama is known as tannoura and has been adopted (with some modifications) by other Sufi orders as well. [9] Physically, this state may include various and unexpected movements, agitation, and all types of dancing. The origination of Sama in the Mevlevi Order of Sufis credited to Rumi, Sufi master and creator of the Mevlevis. The England Alevi Cultural Centre and Cemevi is the largest community organisation in size and number in service of the Turkish and Kurdish community. During, J., and R. Sellheim. The Whirling Dervishes of the Mevlevi order are probably the best-known practitioners of Sama. Below is a picture of the semah dance. Ultimately, people hope to achieve the unveiling of mysteries and gain spiritual knowledge through wajd. [1] Contact | Emblem | Publications | FAQ | Forms | Terms of use, Sounds of living heritage, a journey through indigenous languages (2019), Passing it on: Inventorying living heritage in Africa (2016), ICH for sustainable development: a virtual exhibition (2013), Recognizing Our Cultural Heritage... (2010), Living Heritage: Exploring the Intangible (2007), Mechanism to encourage multinational files, Engaging youth for an inclusive and sustainable Europe, Living heritage experiences and the COVID-19 pandemic, Social practices, rituals and festive events. "Jazn-A Jama'iya (Feast of The Assembly)." Langlois, Tony. was born in Mayhana, a town near Sarakhs, in Iran, bordering Turkmenistan. Semah Alevi inancına ait vazgeçilmez bir parçasıdır. Brill Online, 2010. Gribetz, Arthur. Due to differences in culture between Muslim groups, participation in musical performance is condoned in some and considered questionable in others. In this way, Semahs play a crucial role in fostering and enriching the traditional music culture of Turkey. People from all classes and walks of life can participate, although there is debate between Sufis and legalists about whether novice Sufis and ones more advanced in their faith are capable of achieving the same positive results from sama'. Semah günlük, fakat temiz elbiseyle dönülebilir, bazı semahlar dışında (üryan semahı) özel elbise gerekmez. Edit them in the Widget section of the. The report on the implementation of the Convention, due by States Parties every 6 years, includes a section on the elements inscribed on the Representative List. Alevis are not Shia Muslims. "Sema" redirects here. [10] This relates Sama' to the pilgrimage to Mecca, in that both are intended to bring all who are involved closer to God. About the Artist. Cem’in belli bir aşamasında dedenin işareti ile bağlama eşliğinde kadın ve erkek canların çalınan nefesler eşliğinde birlikte yaptıkları dinsel törendir. Legalist." One consistent characteristic is the performance of the ritual by both men and women, side by side. Günümüzde bir çok cem evinde ve Alevi derneklerinde folklorik semah ekipleri oluşturulmuş bulunmaktadır. Alevism is a religious belief based on ancient Turkish beliefs which still have some elements of animism and shamanism in them and have integrated some ideas borrowed from Shiism. Participants in sama are expected to remain silent and still, and controlled throughout the ceremony, unless wajd occurs. Ethnomeditation Forum 13.2 (2004): 309-11. The community centre has held its doors open to all regardless of faith and culture since 1993. Participants move as a group in a circle while also turning each individually. Sama emphasizes singing, but also includes the playing of instruments, particularly for introductions and accompaniments. Semah etmek, ibadet etmektir. Ghazzālī, and Claud Field. Semah is an Alevi ritual dance. It is considered one of the few activities that bring the Alevi communities together every time. Many cemevleri (Alevi meetinghouses) have organized sema groups that perform at events such as the annual Hacı Bektaş Veli Festival. Pascal Milelli is an artist and painter based in British Columbia. This is a text widget. Semahs are the most crucial means for the transmission of the Alevi-Bektaşi tradition. Ed. Re-Imagining Identity: The Transformation of the Alevi Semah They constitute one of the twelve main services found in Cem rituals, religious practices performed by adherents of Alevi-Bektaşi, a belief system based on admiration for Ali, the fourth caliph after the prophet Muhammed. “Alevis were oppressed not only by the state but were also disliked by the Sunni community. Genelde bele, kendini kontrol etmeyi (Eline Diline Beline sahip olmayı) ve sevdiğine (yola) bağlılığı sembolize eden bir kuşak (kemerbest) bağlanır. Your browser is not supported by this application. (273), Social practices, rituals and festive events Rashow, Khalil J. Ainsi, selon Mevlana, « Tüm evren semah döner » : rien ne reste en place et tout est en perpétuel changement. He then returns from this spiritual journey as a man who has reached maturity and a greater perfection, so as to love and to be of service to the whole of creation. JSTOR. Cemlerdeki 12 hizmetlerin içinde yer alan ana ritüellerinden biridir. Semah, Çark-I, Zamah ya da Pervaz olarak da isimlendirilir. Qur'anic verses are never to be set to meditation, nor ornamented or improvised in any way, so that they remain sacred texts.[6]. P. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs. Alevi/Bektashi. Various forms of Semah exist in Alevi-Bektaşi communities across Turkey, each with distinct musical characteristics and rhythmic structures. Alevism is a religious belief based on ancient Turkish beliefs which still have some elements of animism and shamanism in them and have integrated some ideas borrowed from Shiism. [6] Verses from the Qur'an are never used for this purpose, and not only because their meanings are said to be somewhat dulled through repetition. Welcome to my blog about Dance in Istanbul! Please use recent versions of browsers such as Google Chrome, Firefox, Edge or Safari to access 'Dive' interfaces. Participants must restrain themselves from movement and crying until they reach a point in which they can no longer hold back. The Sama represents a mystical journey of man's spiritual ascent through mind and love to perfection. Mevlevi practitioners of sema are adult initiates into the order, which historically only meant men. It brings out a person's love of God, purifies the soul, and is a way of finding God. Alevis are not Shia Muslims. Semah is one of the main twelve services of the Cem rituals which are considered as religious practices by Alevi adherents. (49), Oral traditions and expressions [1] All of a person's doubt disappears, and the heart and soul can communicate directly with God. It is essential that the trance-like experience of wajd be genuine and not faked for any reason. It is a serious mistake to think of Alevis as Shia Muslims. The most common forms of Alevi sema include kirklar semahı (sema of the forty) and turnalar semahı (crane sema). Semah ile Sema karıştırılmamalıdır. [2], This term stems from the root-verb meaning acceptance by tradition, from which derives the words سَمْع (sam‘un) and اِسْتِمَاع (’istimā‘un, listening), often paired with نَقْل (naqlun) and تَقْلِيد (taqlīdun, tradition). Rumi has said in reference to Sama', "For them it is the Sama' of this world and the other. During, J., and R. Sellheim. Inscribed in 2010 (5.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. ... Semah, Alevi … Sema is prominent in the ceremonies of the Alevi community of Turkey and the closely related Bektashi Order. [8] Al-Ghazzali wrote a chapter entitled "Concerning Music and Dancing as Aids to the Religious Life", where he emphasized how the practices of music and dance are beneficial to Muslims, as long as their hearts are pure before engaging in these practices. "Sama'" Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. "The Sama' Controversy: Sufi vs. Additionally, being in love with a person rather than with God clouds a person's mind when they are listening to erotic poetry. Semah rituals are founded upon the concept of unity with God as part of a natural cycle: people come from God and return to God. All practices, traditional motifs and teachings are passed on orally, and distinct genres of art and literature associated with the tradition continue to thrive. However, the listener's heart must first be pure, or the dancing components of sama' will make these people full of lust instead of love for God. It often involves prayer, song and dance.[4]. Even more for the circle of dancers within the Sama' who turn and have in their midst, their own Ka'aba." The most common of these are the tambourine, bells, and flute. British Journal of Ethnomeditation 6 (1997): 1-33. Sama (Turkish: Sema, Persian, Urdu and Arabic: سَمَاع‎ - samā‘un) is a Sufi ceremony performed as dhikr. Semah ibadet halidir, Süslü-püslü giyecekler giyerek yapılan semahın sadece foklorik anlamı olur ki ibadetten dışlanmış olur. Ed. To start off let me introduce you all to what these are: The Mevlevi order belongs to the Sunni sect of Islam. "Untitled." JSTOR. Sharpe, 1991. In the collective memories of most Sunni groups, the Alevi communities were not considered to be ‘proper Muslims’ and their villages and neighborhoods were marked as the world of ‘the other’” (Erol 2010). Sama means "listening", while dhikr means "remembrance". [1] These rituals often include singing, playing instruments, dancing, recitation of poetry and prayers, wearing symbolic attire, and other rituals. He is noted for establishing a rule for conduct in the khanaqah and also for the introduction of music (sama'), poetry and dance, as part of the Sufi collective devotional ritual of dhikr. Kelime sema kökünden gelen, uçmak, işitmek, gökyüzü ve kendinde geçmek gibi anlamları içerir. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. In this blog, I am going to focus on one specific area of interest: the difference between Sema of Sunni Mevlevis and Semah of Shia Alevis. Ethnomeditation Forum 13.2 (2004): 309-11. The Text Widget allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. They compare the physical sensations experienced by a person in the state of wajd to a state of physical drunkenness, and therefore do not condone it.[8]. Sema is prominent in the ceremonies of the Alevi community of Turkey and the closely related Bektashi Order. Semahs can be described as a set of mystical and aesthetic body movements in rhythmic harmony. Muslims are divided into two groups regarding the issue of sama and the use of music in general: 1) Opponents, particularly of the Salafi/Wahabbi sect. The same debate exists for the young, and whether they are capable of overcoming their lust and clearing their hearts to worship God. Sometimes, the experience of wajd becomes so strong that fainting or even, in extreme circumstances, death[citation needed], occurs. "Sama" Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Read more on periodic reports. JSTOR. The most common forms of Alevi sema include kirklar semahı (sema of the forty) and turnalar semahı (crane sema). "Untitled." It is a serious mistake to think of Alevis as Shia Muslims. Plucked string instruments Another state that people hope to reach through sama' is khamra, which means "spiritual drunkenness".

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